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とした

healer

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その女性は、額にはっきりとしたシワがある。
What does とした above grammatically do here?
Does と go with はっきり because the latter is an adverb?
Does した go with シワ and what does した mean and do in the context?

Is と ever optional for adverbs such as はっきり, さっさ, ぱっぱっ to be used in sentences?
Example:
彼女は二の句がつげなかった。そしてさっさと部屋から出て行った。
わたし、いろんなことが、ぱっぱっと動いていくほうが好きなの。
 
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はっきりと is a と-adverb, yes, which is describing what する is doing.

The total effect is to make a stative verbal phrase with a meaning like "has become clear", like meaning 1㋑: ある状態になる。ある状態である

Because はっきり is an adverb it can't simply describe a noun like しわ directly, but the verbal phrase ending in する can.

Which is a lot of work to get to the same affect as changing "clearly" into "clear", but that's basically what happens.



Is と ever optional for adverbs such as はっきり, さっさ, ぱっぱっ to be used in sentences?
You can say 「はっきり言う」= to say clearly. There are quite a few adverbs that can be used by themselves or with と.

You don't really use さっさ, ぱっぱっ or other such mimetic terms without と. I always get contradicted by an odd case when I use the word, but I think... let me be careful how I put this... I think there are many onomatopoeia adverbs like さっさ which are never used without と.

I'm not certain that there are no onomatopoeia adverbs that have become 'normalized' into plain (と-free) adverbs, but if there are any, they're pretty rare.
 

healer

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Thanks Chris!

Are you saying that the adverbial phrase in this case is supposed to be はっきりとした,not just はっきりと? Am I correct to say that the former is strictly prenominal adjective whereas the latter is purely an adverb?

I have found from a dictionary that はっきりするis possible and often used as はっきりした.

I have since seen quite a few examples using はっきりしたas an adjective and はっきりしない,はっきりしていない,はっきりしているin the predicates. What is the difference between はっきりとしたand はっきりしたas an adverb or an adjective in usage?
For examples:
ゆっくりとした足音が響いてきた
黒々とした林の中を通り過ぎていくのである
あの人ははっきりした個性を持った人だ。
彼は人生にはっきりした目標を持っていない。
彼女がいつどこで生まれたかははっきりしていない。
来られるのかどうかはっきりしてくれ。

I have also seen quite a few examples of はっきりas an adverb qualifying verbs. But then I also saw examples of はっきりとthat goes with verbs. How to decide which one I should use?
For examples:
彼の思想は私の心にはっきり銘記された。
君はその車の値段をはっきり知っているのですか。
できるだけはっきりと自分の考えを述べなさい。
彼が叫ぶと、首の静脈がはっきりと浮き上がった。

Could any adverb that take とparticle be structured the same way as はっきり,for instance さっさ?

I suppose ぱっぱっとis a different kettle of fish,in that とis part of the word according to a dictionary unlike the two above where the particle とseems to be optional though examples of さっさっwithout とremain to be seen.
 
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Are you saying that the adverbial phrase in this case is supposed to be はっきりとした,not just はっきりと? Am I correct to say that the former is strictly prenominal adjective whereas the latter is purely an adverb?
I didn't say adverbial phrase, I said verbal phrase, a.k.a. a short embedded sentence. Which does mean the entire phrase 「はっきりとした」.

But your conclusion is correct; phrases like this can be used as adjectives, while the はっきり・はっきりと are adverbs.


I've not seen any definitive source on the meaning of using と with adverbs that can optionally take a と, but I would say from my experience that the difference does not seem to be very large. If pressed, I would say I think that using Xと is indicating the thing is best described, or most fittingly described by the adverb X, while using the same adverb X without と simply indicates without any particular emphasis that this is an attribute of the thing described.


Could any adverb that take とparticle be structured the same way as はっきり,for instance さっさ?
I'm not sure what you mean by this. Any adverb can be used to modify verbs... that's the definition of an adverb.

In the case of とした, however さっさとする means 'to do quickly' or 'to do promptly'. I believe the phrase is always treated as an action verb, and never as a stative verb, so さっさとした cannot be used descriptively to mean "quick" or "prompt" in the same way that はっきりとした can be used to mean "clear".

You can of course grammatically use さっさと to modify a verb that then modifies a noun, as long as the meanings make sense for the words involved like,
さっさと終わらせた仕事 for "work that was finished quickly".
 

healer

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Thanks again,Chris.

I didn't say adverbial phrase
I apologise for my oversight of what you said. Is this the official term for はっきりとしたand similar?

I'm not sure what you mean by this
I was asking about those adverbs that take とwhether they all can be converted to be adjectives or verbs by suffixing them with either としたor した,とするor するlike the examples below. Perhaps there are no hard and fast rules and I have to familiarize myself with them one by one.
For examples:
はっきりとした
はっきりした
はっきりしない
はっきりしていない
はっきりしている
 
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I don't know that it's quite right to call anything an 'official term' among English words for Japanese grammar... but "embedded sentence" is a very common way of referring to any clause ending in a verb that is not the end of the sentence, e.g. is quoted, used to describe a noun, etc.

"verbal phrase" was something I said in the moment to mean a clause ending in a verb, because calling something as short as 「はっきりとした」 a "sentence" is a bit odd, but grammatically it is an embedded sentence in the original example, and I probably should have stuck to the ordinary term.

All of your "For examples" can be sentences, and if you put them in front of a noun, they can be embedded sentences that are being used adjectivally (i.e., to describe a noun).

In Japanese, anything from a plain verb on up to, well, arbitrarily long lists of modifiers leading up to a final verb can be a sentence, and any sentence can potentially be used as an embedded sentence to describe a noun.
 
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