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When to use -te aru instead of -te iru?

ghawst

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I'm new so I hope I am posting this in the right place.
From the book(s) I am learning from I have learned that 'aru' should be used instead of 'iru' in the -te iru form when the verb is (or is used as) a transitive verb.
But I think I remember seeing 'miru' used with 'iru' and not 'aru' in this form, even though it is transitive... So now I am pretty confused concerning the relation between a verb being transitive/intransitive and using -te iru/aru form.

Pre-answer Edit: I am starting to assume that 'aru' actually adds a certain nuance to the meaning in the -te iru form and is not actually required in all cases for transitive verbs, but I am still confused as to when exactly I should use -te aru and not -te iru.
 
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"aru" is used when the object of a verb is not the actor of a verb. Simply put - when the verb applied to an object has been done by someone else. For example 黒板には文字が書いてあります - symbols are written (by someone) on the blackboard. 窓が開いてあります - the window is opened (by someone)
母は浴衣を畳んでいます- mother folds yukata 浴衣が畳んであります - yukata is folded (by someone)
 

ghawst

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So, as I understand it, we use -te aru instead of -te iru when the verb is transitive and the object of the verb is the subject, while the actor is not mentioned and instead is only implied. Right?
 

Toritoribe

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I'm new so I hope I am posting this in the right place.
From the book(s) I am learning from I have learned that 'aru' should be used instead of 'iru' in the -te iru form when the verb is (or is used as) a transitive verb.
But I think I remember seeing 'miru' used with 'iru' and not 'aru' in this form, even though it is transitive... So now I am pretty confused concerning the relation between a verb being transitive/intransitive and using -te iru/aru form.

Pre-answer Edit: I am starting to assume that 'aru' actually adds a certain nuance to the meaning in the -te iru form and is not actually required in all cases for transitive verbs, but I am still confused as to when exactly I should use -te aru and not -te iru.
Have you already learned that the function of the -te iru form differs depending on the type of verbs? The -te iru form of durative verbs (継続動詞) is an on-going action, i.e., it's the present progressive tense (e.g. 走っている, 食べている), whereas the -te iru form of punctual verbs (瞬間動詞) expresses the present state resulting from the past action (e.g. 結婚している, 死んでいる).

The -te aru from is used to express the present state resulting from the past action of durative verbs. In transitive-intrasitive pair verbs, transitive verbs are mostly durative verbs, and intransitive verbs are mostly punctual verbs, so you can use two different expressions in almost the same meaning.
e.g.
壁に絵が掛かっている (-te iru form of the intransitive verb 掛かる)
壁に絵が掛けてある (-te aru form of the transitive verb 掛ける)

教室に椅子が並んでいる (-te iru form of the intransitive verb 並ぶ)
教室に椅子が並べてある (-te aru form of the transitive verb 並べる)

As for the difference in nuance between these two expressions, the -te aru form of transitive verbs suggests the existence of the agent/doer. (As you can see, the -te aru form is more important for transitive verbs that don't have the intransitive counterpart.)

Incidentally, the agent is not always "someone else". The speaker can be the agent. Also, を can be used to indicate the object, not always が.
e.g.
お風呂沸かしてありますから、どうぞ入ってください。
すぐに料理ができるように、材料買ってあります。
It's said that を has a nuance that it's done previously for a purpose, comparing to が, so it's close to the -te oku form in meaning.

When 開く is used as an example, it's better to put furigana on the kanji since 開く can be read both as あく(intransitive) and ひらく(transitive/intransitive). ひらいてある is valid, but あいてある is invalid because あく is intransitive.
 
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