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Verb potential form conjugation


15 Apr 2017
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I just finish studying the potential form of a verb but now I have a question, let's use the potential form of hanasu (hanaseru).

hanasu is to talk and hanaseru is to be able or can talk, that's why when asking if you speak Japanese you use nihongoga hanasemasuka and not hanashimasuka

Now, the question I have, since hanaseru is a verb by itself, how many conjugations can I have for a potential verb?

Hanasemasu (yes)
hanasemasen (yes)
hanasemashita (yes)
hanase masen deshita (yes)
hanase mashou/hanasenai deshou (volitional is possible for a potential verb???)
hanasete/hanasenaide (imperative is possible for a potential verb???)
hanasete imasu/ hanasete imasen (progressive is possible for a potential verb???)

and the informals
Hanaseru (yes)
hanasenai (yes)
hanaseta (yes)
hanasenakatta (yes)
hanaseyou/hanasenai darou (is this possible?)
hanasero/hanaseruna (is this possible?)
hanasete iru (is this possible?)

As always, thanks for your help and replies in advance.
ありがとう ございます


22 Feb 2008
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Potential verbs performs as an ichidan verb (-ru verb, vowel-stem verb), but it can't have potential, passive, causative or causative passive form. Potential and causative passive are semantically impossible, the potential form of the passive and causative from is used instead of the passive and causative form of the potential form, respectively but another potential form ~ことができる or ~うる is more commonly used for these cases. Imperative can be valid, but the situation is very limited. The rest forms are used with no problem.

past: 話せた
negative: 話せない
polite(-masu stem): 話せます
-te form: 話せて
potential of passive (not passive of potential 話せられる): 話されることができる(valid, but rarely used. 話されうる is more common.)
potential of causative (not causative of potential 話せさせる): 話させることができる or 話させうる
(Note that 話させられる is used as causative passive 話(を)する, not potential of causative)

hanase mashou/hanasenai deshou (volitional is possible for a potential verb???)
hanaseyou/hanasenai darou (is this possible?)
Potential verbs are non-volitional, so those volitional forms are only used for presumptive.
話せよう/話せなかろう(or 話せまい)
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