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Using ようです

Denisel

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こんにちは。
I am learning ようです now.
Rules:
non-polite form }
いーadjective  }
なーadjective+な } ようです
noun + の }
Eg.
あれは 死ぬようです。
かなり 高いようです。
今ひまな ようです。
事故の ようです。
My question is: how to write the negative past tense of ようです?
Past tense:
Eg1. 去年の 旅行は 楽しかったです。
Is it:去年の 旅行は 楽しかったようです。
Negative form:
Eg2: この台風は 大きくないです。
Is it:この台風は 大きくなようです。
Past negative?
Eg3:去年の台風は 大きくなようでした。? or 去年の台風は 大きくなかったようです。?

Experts, help please!
 

Toritoribe

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Past #1 and the latter one in negative past #3 are correct, but negative #2 and the former one in #3 are wrong. ("Negative past ようです" and "negative ようでした" are both used for negative past.)

hint:
Negative forms perform as an i-adjective.
 

Denisel

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Past and negative past are correct, but negative is wrong.
("negative past ようです" and "negative + ようでした" are both used.)

hint:
Negative forms perform as an i-adjective.

この台風は 大きくないようです。?
 

Toritoribe

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You got it! (I edited my previous post. Please reread it again.)
 

Denisel

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You got it! (I edited my previous post. Please reread it again.)
Thank you!
Another question: when to useな, にandだ with よう? ような, ように, ようだ。
Can you give some examples?
 

Toritoribe

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It's quite the same as na-adjectives.

ような: attributive
熊のような犬
a dog like bear

ように: adverbial
風が台風のように強い。
The wind is strong like a typhoon.

ようだ: predicative(non-polite)
かなり高いようだ。
It seems to be rather high/expensive.

Note that "verb + ように" can mean "in order to/so that". See the following thread.
ように / 精一杯 questions | Japan Forum
 

Denisel

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It's quite the same as na-adjectives.

ような: attributive
熊のような犬
a dog like bear

ように: adverbial
風が台風のように強い。
The wind is strong like a typhoon.

ようだ: predicative(non-polite)
かなり高いようだ。
It seems to be rather high/expensive.

Note that "verb + ように" can mean "in order to/so that". See the following thread.
ように / 精一杯 questions | Japan Forum
Thank you very much for the examples.
How about for negative な-adjective?
今ひまな ようです。=> 今ひまじゃない ようです。?
Can be written as: 今ひまじゃあるようです。?
Please confirm whether the above two forms are correct. Thank you.
 

Toritoribe

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Yes for the negative but no for じゃある since ひまじゃある is invalid.
ひまではある is valid. は works as a contrastive marker here.
e.g.
今ひまではあるようです。(used when connoting でも、テレビを見たいようです or でも、気分が悪いようです, for instance)
 

Denisel

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Yes for the negative but no for じゃある since ひまじゃある is invalid.
ひまではある is valid. は works as a contrastive marker here.
e.g.
今ひまではあるようです。(used when connoting でも、テレビを見たいようです or でも、気分が悪いようです, for instance)
I mean to change another form of negative なーadjective: ひまじゃありません。
to よですーform. So I thought it is:ひまじゃある ようです。? This is invalid?
 

Toritoribe

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ありません is a polite form of ない, whereas ある is affirmative. The meaning is opposite.
 

Denisel

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ありません is a polite form of ない, whereas ある is affirmative. The meaning is opposite.
So:
ひまじゃありません cannot change to ようです form
ひまじゃないです => ひまじゃないようです
ひまではあるです => ひまではあるようです
This applies to all な adjective,Toritoribe san, am I right?
 

Toritoribe

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It's more likely both ひまじゃありません and ひまじゃないです change to ひまじゃない when attached to よう. ひまじゃありません and ひまじゃないです are both polite forms of ひまじゃない. The meanings are completely the same between these two forms. Only the level of politeness is different (ありません is more polite and formal than ないです).

ひまではあるです is invalid. What is the polite form of ある?

This applies to all な adjective,Toritoribe san, am I right?
Not only all na-adjectives but all negative forms including i-adjectives and verbs.

ひまじゃありません/ひまじゃないです --> ひまじゃないようです
高くありません/高くないです --> 高くないようです
死にません/死なないです --> 死なないようです
 

Denisel

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It's more likely both ひまじゃありません and ひまじゃないです change to ひまじゃない when attached to よう. ひまじゃありません and ひまじゃないです are both polite forms of ひまじゃない. The meanings are completely the same between these two forms. Only the level of politeness is different (ありません is more polite and formal than ないです).

ひまではあるです is invalid. What is the polite form of ある?


Not only all na-adjectives but all negative forms including i-adjectives and verbs.

ひまじゃありません/ひまじゃないです --> ひまじゃないようです
高くありません/高くないです --> 高くないようです
死にません/死なないです --> 死なないようです
わかりました。Should be ひまではあるんです and ひまではあります。
Thank you very much for the clarifications!
 

Toritoribe

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ひまではあるんです is not a simple affirmative. It's different form ひまではあります in meaning/usage. See the following page.
Noun-related particles - Tae Kim's Japanese grammar guide

When the explanatory の/ん is applied to this structure, the form should be ひまではあるようなんです.
 

Denisel

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ひまではあるんです is not a simple affirmative. It's different form ひまではあります in meaning/usage. See the following page.
Noun-related particles - Tae Kim's Japanese grammar guide

When the explanatory の/ん is applied to this structure, the form should be ひまではあるようなんです.
This is getting complex. I thought both means there is no free time. Or should they mean "only exist when there is free time"? In what way are they different? I looked at Kim's grammar guide and still have no clue...
 

Toritoribe

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Tae Kim explained about the explanatory の/ん very well. Almost all members who asked about it so far were satisfied with it.

You seem to be misunderstanding a very basic fact, by the way. ひまではあります is not a simple affirmative form of ひまじゃないです/ひまじゃありません, either. The polite affirmative form is ひまです.
 

Denisel

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Tae Kim explained about the explanatory の/ん very well. Almost all members who asked about it so far were satisfied with it.

You seem to be misunderstanding a very basic fact, by the way. ひまではあります is not a simple affirmative form of ひまじゃないです/ひまじゃありません, either. The polite affirmative form is ひまです.
I am just a beginner. I guess ひまではあるんです and ひまではあります means "there is free time" but
ひまです means "I am free". Please correct and explain the meaning if I am wrong.
 

Toritoribe

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I already explained it in this post. ひまではあります is a variation of ひまです, and ひまではあるんです is a variation of ひまではあります, thus, all these forms mean "I am free", but the nuance or the situation where it's used is different. ひまではありません/ひまじゃありません means "I'm not free", and not "there is not free time", right? This is also applied to i-adjectives; 高いです vs. 高くはあります vs. 高くはあるんです.
If you are just learning the forms to be attached to よう, you don't need to think about these affirmative forms.
 
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