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Help Questions with the usage of particles in certain phrases.

Hubert Hung

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Hi! I've met several problems regarding which particle to use for some sentences.

1. Difference between 友達に話します and 友達とはなします
2. Difference between 学校へ行きます and 学校に行きます
3. I know 公園を散歩します you need to use を. If it's other action verbs like running, do I still use を? Why can't I use で?

Thank you.
 

Toritoribe

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1)
に is unilateral, and と is mutual, thus, it's like "to talk to" vs. "to talk with" in English.

2)
The meaning is the same.

3)
を is used to indicate the location of transfer with intransitive verbs such like 道を歩く, グラウンドを走る, 階段を上がる, 橋を渡る or 空を飛ぶ. As you can see, these verbs describe the movement in/at/along the location. You can also use で with these verbs, but unlike を, で often has a nuance of "means". 橋で渡る emphasizes "to cross a river via a bridge", and not "by a boat" for instance. Or, it can emphasize that it's the location of action, which is another function of で. 公園で散歩します sounds like that the subject walks around only inside the park, and not other places.
 

Hubert Hung

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Thank you so much for your reply. Regarding に and へ, which one is used more often when talking about going somewhere? What is the actual difference and how do we choose which one to use?
 

mdchachi

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Thank you so much for your reply. Regarding に and へ, which one is used more often when talking about going somewhere? What is the actual difference and how do we choose which one to use?
I was taught the difference is similar to going "to" somewhere and going "towards" somewhere. But it seems there really is no practical difference for this kind of example. You should use に as your default. It is more common I believe plus it's easier to hear.
Here's an in-depth discussion about this if anybody cares.
【ことばをめぐる】(040509)に(格助詞),へ(格助詞)
(I don't really care so I didn't read the whole thing myself. ;-)
 
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