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Help Grammar Questions: で, が, です, あります...

xminus1

Sempai
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Hello, friends:

I have three (related) questions about the grammar of a Minna listening comprehension exercise. They are pretty basic/simple. :rolleyes:

I will attach the audio clip of the monologue if you'd like to listen to the whole thing, (it's under 3 minutes), but I don't think it's necessary to listen to it in order to answer my questions. I will type out the sentences I have questions about.

The context is a person discussing the results of a survey about children's after-school activities. The monologue sometimes quotes specific wording in an accompanying graphic that depicts the survey results, which is the reason for the 「」marks in my transcription:


水泳が一番多くて51%、二番目はサッカー19%、三番目体操13%です。
Question 1: what is the function of で here?

一番多い答えは「体が強くなって、元気になった」80%でした
そして、「スポーツが上手になった」37%、「目標を持つことができる」30%です
Question 2: what is the difference between the で。。。でした pattern and the が。。。です pattern?

「コミュニケーションが上手になった」も18%あります
Question 3: why is あります used here rather than the copula?

Thank you very much in advance for any help you could offer
🙏
 

Attachments

  • Minna Listening Comprehension -- After School Sports Survey.zip
    1.6 MB · Views: 81

Toritoribe

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1)
で can be considered the -te form of copula だ/です. It's used to connect two clauses (continuous usage of the -te form).

二番目はサッカーです。(割合は)19%、 --> 二番目はサッカーで、(割合は)19%、
三番目は体操です。(割合は)13%です。 --> 三番目は体操で、(割合は)13%です。

2)
~で…でした is the same as #1. There is no difference in meaning between です and でした here.
As for ~が…です, notice that there is no topic in this case, unlike #1.

三番目は体操で、(割合は)13%です
「スポーツが上手になった」(の割合)が37%、

If 二番目は and 三番目は are put before 「スポーツが上手になった」 and 「目標を持つことができる」, respectively, で is used instead of が, as same as #1.

「目標を持つことができる」(の割合)が30%です
三番目は「目標を持つことができる」、(割合は)30%です

3)
If it's 「コミュニケーションが上手になった」も18%です, it means there is another answer whose ratio is 18%.


All those expressions are basically the same in meaning. Various forms are used to avoid repeating the same expressions.
 

xminus1

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Hi, Toritoribe-sama...thank you for helping me! You are always so brilliant in explaining things, particularly when you reconstruct the "theoretically complete" sentence from the elliptical actual sentence. Your explanation of (割合は) + #% and (の割合) が + #% was revelatory! You really help me to understand the basic concepts!

I think I have only one question left.

In this pattern: [noun + は + noun + ], (割合は) + #%, [...] (割合は) + #%です。--> why is there no copula/で after each of the 割合は#%; i.e. why is there a copula for the last 割合は#% only?

Thanks so much!!
 

Toritoribe

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There is no problem to put で at the end of each percentage.
e.g.
水泳が一番多くて51%、二番目はサッカーで19%、三番目体操で13%です。
そして、「スポーツが上手になった」が37%、「目標を持つことができる」が30%です。

These で are also the -te form of copula だ/です. The point is the difference in nuance between the -te form and the masu stem of verbs, the -ku form of i-adjectives or just nouns when connecting clauses. Generally speaking, the -te form sounds more colloquial/casual, whereas the latter ones are more achademic/formal.
e.g.
図書館に行って、本を借りた。
図書館に行き、本を借りた。

頂上への道は、遠くて険しい。
頂上への道は、遠く険しい。

サメは魚類で、カエルは両生類で、イルカは哺乳類だ。
サメは魚類、カエルは両生類、イルカは哺乳類だ。

(As for na-adjectives, "stem + で" is used for both cases.)

It could even sound childish to connect all clauses with -te forms, for instance, 朝起きて、学校へ行って、英語の勉強をして、テニスをしました. The speaker is discussing the results of a survey, i.e., it's an achademic/formal situation, so で is not used after each percentage.


By the way, sorry if this hurts your feelings, but may I ask you to stop using the honorific "sama" to me?;) It's mostly used for customers in business scenes, and I'm not an Imperial family member or something, of course.:LOL:
 

xminus1

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Hi, Toritoribe-san...you have explained everything perfectly. The way you answer questions is a work of art!

Thank you so very much!
 
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