I agree with Buntaro. You can also say メアリーさんは土曜日に京都に映画を見に行きました。But from stylistic point of view, using に repeatedly should be avoided. So it would sound better to say メアリーさんは、(この前の)土曜日、京都に映画を見に行きました。(4) メアリさんは金曜日に友だちの家でご飯を食べました。
Sounds correct to me.
I would change this to 京都で映画を見ました。
あなたの家に猫がいませんか is grammartically correct and may be used in some cases, but it's not common.You said that あなたの家に猫がいませんか sounds a little strange. Is it more common to just say 「猫がいません」 ? I would imagine it is not necessary to put in the 家に (“at home”) part, right?
My understanding is that there are several ways to say “I have a cat” in Japanese:
(Hirashin seems to be saying (h) 飼られます is also commonly used.)
Hirashin, which of these is most commonly used in conversational Japanese?
We usually don't use (i). 京都で映画を見ました would be all right.(i) 京都で映画を見に行きました。
買い物をしました means "I bought something" while 買い物に行きました means "I wen shopping". So they are a little different in meaning. We use both of them.買い物をしました。
--> This is grammatically correct, but I would say, 買い物に行きました。
あなたは先週忙しかったか is grammartically correct, but it would not be used because we usually drop あなた if we use 忙しかったか. あなた is too formal when you use that informal pattern.1. あなたは先週忙しかったですか。
Would dropping です as in 忙しかったか。be usual/acceptable grammer?
Sorry for nitpicking, but に doesn't always have those kinds of nuance. For instance, it's hard to say that the action starts in another area than Kyoto in 京都に着く or 電車が京都に止まる. It's usually explained that に indicates the destination (目的地/到達点) in grammar whether the action started in another area or not.We should also bring up the example of に which means to "travel from within the boundaries of one area into the boundaries of another area". For example, "kawa に oyogu" (swim into a river) and "Kyouto に hikkoshi suru" (move to Kyoto, in the sense of changing place of residence). Another example is "omawarisan に naru" (become a policeman, in the sense of changing from non-policeman-ness to policeman-ness). (Please forgive my use of the gender-bias word policeman.)
There is no such difference between に and へ. These two particles are interchangeable when they indicate destination. As for 川に/へ泳ぐ, this expression sounds awkward. Other expressions like 川に/へ向かって泳ぐ or 川に/へ泳いでいく would be usually used for that meaning instead.Then there is the usage of へ which means "to move towards an area without actually entering that area". For example, "kawa へ oyogu" (swim towards a river, without actually entering the river). (Please note that in this example, へ is pronounced as "e" not "he").
金曜日にもパーティーがあります。 is grammatically correct, but the meaning is not what you want to convey. This sentence means that the speaker has a party/parties also on another day/other days than Friday.My main difficulty is with the correct placing of も and I would be grateful if you could confirm this.Especially might も replace が instead of using it as I do here.
Location であります can be valid.I cannot think of a situation where we would use であります.
I checked Genki.5. あなたのかばんは新しかったですか。
Notice that to indicate destination is not only one function of に. In fact, 京都に映画を見ました is valid as a meaning "I saw an image of movie in Kyoto", i.e., a poetic expression that Kyoto is like a movie. に works as の中に "inside" here.京都に映画を見ました would not even carry the meaning of 'I watched a film as I was travelling to Kyoto' and a sentence to that effect would require a second location as the absolute physical bounds, an airplane or some such, in order for で映画を見ました。To be used. So 'While traveling to Kyoto a film was watched on the plane' however it seems '(I) Watched a film on the plane as I was travelling to Kyoto' would likely be a 'better' translation. I hope that all made sense
木曜日にパーティーがあります。金曜日にもパーティーがあります。Then would be fine. Thanks for the help.金曜日にもパーティーがあります。 is grammatically correct, but the meaning is not what you want to convey. This sentence means that the speaker has a party/parties also on another day/other days than Friday.
The position of も does change the meaning. You can think that the noun preceding right before も is one of the examples. Thus, you need to put も after パーティー to show that there are other events than the party on Friday
Thanks for correction and sorry for my unclear explanation, but it's at least understandable enough to convey my idea correctly to you, right? Hope my reply is not useless, at least.This sentence needs looking at "You can think that the noun preceding right before も is one of the examples'
'preceding right before も' should be 'preceding も'. Because 'noun' here is singular there can be no confusion. Consider the plural form 'preceding nouns.'
'The position of も does change the meaning. Think of the noun preceding も as an example of this' Is clearer.
The point is that そうだ is needed to express other's emotion since we can't know it. Both メアリーさんは退屈そうです and メアリーさんはつまらなそうです work fine in this case since that's what she really looks like.“メアリーさんはつまらないです。
I am not sure here if I am saying 'Mary appears to be bored' or if I am accusing her of being boring.”
--> You are accusing her! It is easy to make this mistake. Keep track of these two terms:
bored: 退屈 (taikutsu)
boring: つまらない (tsumaranai)
In your example, Mary is bored so we need to say 退屈. By the way, it is very common for Japanese people studying English (and Chinese people studying English) to mix these two up. Not too long ago, I heard a student say, “I am very boring” (!) when it was clear he meant to say, “I am very bored”.
So direct objects take を and indirect objects take に. This seems to mirror exactly intransitive verbs taking を and transative に. Two ways to think about the same thing. Thanks for clearing my confusion about the question 国 also.> In English we say, “I met Takeshi”, with the word "Takeshi" being the direct object of the transitive verb "meet". Therefore it is natural that we want to use the same grammar in Japanese. But we use the particle に in the corresponding sentence in Japanese, so the corresponding sentence in Japanese is not a case of a transitive verb taking a direct object, it is a case of に indicating that the word Takeshi is an indirect object.
Your explanation of そう and しています are very valuable to me. In return I will try to give you another grammer lesson. Only joking.The point is that そうだ is needed to express other's emotion since we can't know it. Both メアリーさんは退屈そうです and メアリーさんはつまらなそうです work fine in this case since that's what she really looks like.
Incidentally, メアリーさんは退屈です still expresses the speaker's emotion/feeling. メアリーさんは退屈しています is used to describe her state.
Actually, you got it backwards. Transitive verbs take を and intransitive verbs take に. But you are doing very well on all these grammar topics....intransitive verbs taking を and transative に.
You are very kind to insruct me Sir.subject 主語 shugo
verb 動詞 doushi
transitive verb 他動詞 tadoushi
grammar particle 助詞 joshi
object of the verb 目的語 mokutekigo
direct object 直接目的語 chokusetsu mokutekigo
intransitive verb 自動詞 jidoushi
preposition 前置詞 zenchishi
indirect object 間接目的語 kansetsu mokutekigo
Isn't grammar fun? (Hahaha.)
That should be :５.教科書にもってくてください。
That should be :６.私は漢字を教えてください。
That should be any of these :７.私の本は返してください。