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Exercises for Lesson 9 Part 2

hirashin

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Dear native English speakers,
would you check my sentences, please?

1 translate into Japanese.
① Do you know how dirty water is made clean in Singapore's NEWater system?

② According to Forestry Agency, two thirds of Japan's land is forest. (Forestry Agency = 林野庁)

③ That's how clean water is made from dirty water.

④ I'm sorry I'm late. Because of the heavy rain this morning, our train could not leave Osaka on time.

⑤ Singapore had to import a lot of water from its neighboring country, Malaysia.

⑥ If you want to be slim, you should eat less.

⑦ We should not depend too much on import for food.

⑧ The diameter of the sun is more than a hundred times greater than that of Earth.

2 次の日本語とほぼ同じ意味になるように[ ]の語句を並び替えて下線部に書きなさい。文頭の語も
すべて小文字にしてあります。
①どのようにしてこの汚い水がきれいにされるのか説明してくれませんか?
 Would [ how / made / this / you / explain / clean / dirty water / is ]?
 Would you explain how this dirty water is made clean?
②バクテリアは、その水を特殊なフィルターに通すことによって取り除かれる。
 Bacteria [ removed / are / passing / a special filter / the water / by / through ].
 Bacteria are removed by passing the water through a special filter.
③ウィルスは、この工程では取り除けない。
 Viruses [ be / this process / in / can't / removed ].
 Viruses can't be removed in this process.
④彼らはその水を飲んでも全く安全だと言っています。
 They [ the water / drink / safe / say / perfectly / is / to ].
 They say the water is perfectly safe to drink.
⑤その水を完全にきれいにするために、特殊なフィルターが使われます。
 A special filter [ make / used / perfectly clean / is / to / the water ].
 A special filter is used to make the water perfectly clean.
 

Buntaro

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Do you know how dirty water is made clean in Singapore's NEWater system?
We usually do not say “dirty water”, we say “waste water”. “Clean” water that comes from a waste water treatment facility is called “reclaimed water”. But it is okay to say “clean water”. (But many people feel a waste treatment facility cannot produce 'clean' water.) We can also say “pure water”, but “pure water” is not “reclaimed water” . In addition, we don’t say, “Water is made clean.”

According to Forestry Agency, two thirds of Japan's land is forest.
According to the Forestry Agency, two thirds of Japan's land is forest.

That's how clean water is made from dirty water.
That's how waste water is turned into clean water.
or
That's how waste water is reclaimed and turned into clean water.
or
This is the process we use to take waste water and turn it into clean water.
Warning, do not say, “This is the process we use to take waste water and purify it into clean water.”

Because of the heavy rain this morning, our train could not leave Osaka on time.
Mistake. And it’s too ‘Japanglish’. Same as starting sentences with “As…” (I am now adding “Because…” sentences to the list of sentences I will not help you with.)

Singapore had to import a lot of water from its neighboring country, Malaysia.
Correct.

If you want to be slim, you should eat less.
Gramatically correct.

We should not depend too much on import for food.
We should not depend too much on imports for food.

The diameter of the sun is more than a hundred times greater than that of Earth.
Technically, this is correct. But I would say, “The diameter of the sun is more than a hundred times greater than that of the Earth.”

Would you explain how this dirty water is made clean?
Would you explain how waste water is reclaimed?
or
Would you explain how waste water is purified? (Warning: Waste water cannot be purified by merely putting it through a filter.)

Both of the following two examples are correct, and the meanings are different:
Would you explain how waste water is reclaimed?
Would you explain how this waste water is reclaimed?


Viruses can't be removed in this process.
Correct.
or
Viruses can't be removed this way.
or
Viruses can't be removed in this way.

They say the water is perfectly safe to drink.
Correct.

A special filter is used to make the water perfectly clean.
Mistake: Use, “A special filter is used to filter the water.” (As you have said yourself, a filter cannot be used to remove viruses and make the water perfectly clean.)
 

hirashin

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Thanks for your ongoing help, Buntaro,

Here's the text. What do you think? Are there any unnatural usages in it?

Lesson 9 The Most Advanced Water—“NEWater”

Do you ever think about where your water comes from or how it is produced? Here is a report on a country that has an interesting way of providing water for its people.
-1-

In Japan, we usually take it for granted that we will have water whenever we want it. And, indeed, as much as 70% of the earth is covered with water, so it would seem that the planet has plenty of it. But, unfortunately, most of it—around 97%—is sea water. That means only about 3% is fresh water. Furthermore, not even all of that 3% is available for our use. In fact, humans have easy access to as little as 0.8% of the total water resources of the planet. Many developing countries have no proper water system, and millions of people suffer from problems caused by dirty water.

However, the shortage of clean water is not a problem just for developing countries. Take Singapore, for example. For several reasons, this small but wealthy country also faces that problem. Singapore, which is only about the size of Awaji-shima, does not have any big rivers to use as sources of fresh water. In addition, although there is plenty of rain in Singapore, there are no big forests or rice fields to hold the water. And the land is flat—that makes it difficult to build dams. Given these difficulties, Singapore faces the major problem of providing water for its own 5 million people, plus millions of visitors annually.

-2-​
So how does Singapore solve its water problem? One way is to use artificial reservoirs. There are 17 of these in Singapore, and they are used to save the heavy rain that falls on the island. The amount of water that falls on two thirds of the country ends up in these reservoirs.

The reservoirs alone cannot supply all of Singapore’s needs, so the country has to buy water from its nearest neighbor, Malaysia. The water imported from Malaysia is sent to Singapore through pipelines. But at one point, in 2002, Malaysia demanded a huge price increase for its water—to a hundred times higher than before! Singapore was shocked by this demand. The government knew that it would have to depend less on outside water resources in the future.

That’s how NEWater was born. It is drinking water made from the dirty water that comes out of homes and businesses. It is made clean by the most advanced technology, going through a complicated cleaning process. First, solid matter and bacteria are removed by passing the water through a special filter. Next, there is another process to remove heavy metals, viruses, and pesticides. At this stage, the water is almost pure. Finally, the water is cleaned using UV light. When the whole process is complete, chemicals are added to the water to make it perfectly safe to drink.
 

Buntaro

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...millions of people suffer from problems caused by dirty water.
...millions of people suffer from problems caused by impure water.

It is drinking water made from the dirty water that comes out of homes and businesses.
It is drinking water made from reclaimed water that comes out of homes and businesses.
or
It is drinking water made from the reclaimed water that comes out of homes and businesses.
or
It is drinking water made from waste water that comes out of homes and businesses.
or
It is drinking water made from the waste water that comes out of homes and businesses.
(In these examples, using "the" is okay but no "the" is better.)


It is made clean by...
It is turned into clean water by...
or
It is reclaimed and turned into clean water by...

...going through a complicated cleaning process.
...going through a complicated purification process.
 
Last edited:

hirashin

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Thanks, Buntaro. I'd also like to hear other native speakers' opinions. Would anyone help me?
 
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