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Difference in usage between は...が and の...は.

healer

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彼は自転車が失くす。
彼の自転車は失くす。

田中さんは顔が丸いです。
田中さんの顔は丸いです。
田中さんは丸い顔をしています。
 

Toritoribe

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彼は自転車が失くす。
彼の自転車は失くす。
Both are ungrammatical. It should be;
彼は自転車を失くす。
彼の自転車が失くなる。

田中さんは顔が丸いです。
田中さんの顔は丸いです。
田中さんは丸い顔をしています。
The meanings are the same. The first and third sentences are talking about Tanaka, and the second is about his/her face.
 

healer

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彼は自転車を失くす。
彼の自転車が失くなる。
Thank you. I forgot to use を for transitive verbs and が for intransitive verbs.
彼の自転車が失くなる can be rewritten as 彼の自転車は失くなる, can't it? Just the emphasis is different, が is on the subject while は is on the object, isn't it?
 

Toritoribe

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彼の自転車が失くなる and 彼の自転車は失くなる are different in meaning or nuance. The former is a neutral description, whereas は works as the contrastive marker (it's his bicycle, not other's bicycle or his other properties), or 彼の自転車 is an already-known information in the latter. There is no object in the second sentence since 失くなる is intransitive.
 

healer

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Thanks for reminding me that は is also used as a contrastive marker. I also understand that は is also used to emphasise the predicate as opposed to が for subject or as identifier. So how to know that which function that は does?
 

healer

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Thanks again!

Is it possible to give me an example along those lines to demonstrate は being used for emphasising the predicate instead of contrasting.

What about the following? Would they simply statements of facts only?
自転車は失くなる。
Bicycle gets lost.
彼は失くなる。
He gets lost.

By the way, can we say the following grammatically?
彼を失くす。
He loses himself.
 

Toritoribe

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Is it possible to give me an example along those lines to demonstrate は being used for emphasising the predicate instead of contrasting.
It's more likely "focus/what the speaker wants to convey the most" rather than "emphasis".

彼はいつも自転車に鍵をかけずに止めている。そのせいか、彼の自転車はよく失くなる。
He always parks his bicycle without locking it. Probably because of that, his bicycle is missing repeatedly.

彼の自転車 is already-known information, so は is used here.

自転車は失くなる。
Bicycle gets lost.
彼は失くなる。
He gets lost.
Remember that the present form of action verbs usually can't express the present tense. 失くなる and 失くす are the future tense, or the present habit/repeated action there.

The former is characteristics of bicycle in general, like 機械はいつか壊れる. The latter means "He will pass away/die".

彼を失くす。
He loses himself.
That's perfectly grammatical, but the meaning is "I/We will lose him."
 

healer

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Thanks again!
失くなる and 失くす
Should 亡くなる and 亡くす be used when death is suggested? I had supposed 失くなる and 失くす are only for loss of something. And 無くなる and 無くす are for lack of something.

Remember that the present form of action verbs usually can't express the present tense.
I didn't know this. Thanks for the information. I had understood that non-past tense was for present and future action and 〜ている form for repeated and habitual actions.

"I/We will lose him."
I understand the subject if readily understood is often omitted. When the subject is not mentioned, can it be someone other than the speaker or the same group?
 

Toritoribe

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Should 亡くなる and 亡くす be used when death is suggested?
That's right. I translated it as "to die" since I thought I would interpreted it as a miswriting of 亡くなる/亡くす if I really read that sentence. In fact, other interpretations don't make sense.

I had supposed 失くなる and 失くす are only for loss of something. And 無くなる and 無くす are for lack of something.
There is no such difference in meaning. You can use 無くなる/無くす for both meanings. 失くなる/失くす is 常用外, by the way.

I had understood that non-past tense was for present and future action and 〜ている form for repeated and habitual actions.
It differs depending on the types of verbs (durative, punctual, state, etc.).

I understand the subject if readily understood is often omitted. When the subject is not mentioned, can it be someone other than the speaker or the same group?
Yes, second or third person can be the subject if it's obvious from the context.
 

healer

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It differs depending on the types of verbs (durative, punctual, state, etc.).
You don’t mind and give me some examples of each type to illustrate the present form of action verbs that usually can't express the present tense. Thanks.
 

Toritoribe

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durative
future: 彼は明日走る。
present progressive: 彼は今走っている。
present habit: 彼は毎朝公園を走る/走っている。

punctual
future: 彼は来年日本に来る。
present state: 彼は今、日本に来ている。
present habit: 彼はしょっちゅう日本に来る/来ている。

state (~ている form is usually not used)
present state: 彼は料理ができる。

the fourth type (present/non-past form is usually not used)
present state: 彼の能力は優れている。
 

healer

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present state: 彼は今、日本に来ている
present habit: 彼はしょっちゅう日本に来る/来ている
Are there many punctual verbs? Is 行く one of them? I just wonder if there is certain consistent way to interpret all punctual verbs in ~ている form. Do they always mean the action is done and is in the resultant state?

Apparently it doesn't mean "coming". Does 来ている mean "came and arrived already"? Why wouldn't one say 彼は今、日本に着いた or the like instead if that is what one means? As to the one for the habit, what could be the difference in meaning between 来る and 来ている in that sentence?

So the fourth type has no official term.
 

Toritoribe

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Are there many punctual verbs?
Yes, quite so many; 来る, 死ぬ, 結婚する, 着く, 届く, 消える, 咲く,,,.

Is 行く one of them?
Yes.

I just wonder if there is certain consistent way to interpret all punctual verbs in ~ている form. Do they always mean the action is done and is in the resultant state?
Mostly yes, but not always, as in the example しょっちゅう日本に来ている.

Apparently it doesn't mean "coming". Does 来ている mean "came and arrived already"? Why wouldn't one say 彼は今、日本に着いた or the like instead if that is what one means?
Came, already arrived and is in Japan.

As to the one for the habit, what could be the difference in meaning between 来る and 来ている in that sentence?
Where the focus is on is different; the action "to come" vs the state "to be here".

So the fourth type has no official term.
It's named 第四種の動詞, i.e., literally meaning "the fourth type of verbs", by a famous linguist 金田一春彦 Kindaichi Haruhiko who analyzed the aspect of Japanese verbs by ~ている form for the first time.

By the way, the ~ている form of verbs is a very fundamental concept learners must learn. You need to learn it properly in textbooks or something.
 

healer

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the ~ている form of verbs is a very fundamental concept learners must learn
Thanks for your advice! I shall try my best.
I understand that the ~ている form either indicates an action in progress or a resultant state of an action.
 
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