ぜ and ぞ are just tacked onto the end of sentences to make it sound more forceful/masculine, like よ on steroids.
さあ and だってさ go before sentences and I interpret them as something like "well," or "you know..." There might be some info out there if you google it but I'm feeling lazy so I'm not gonna bother double checking... the って in だって is the contraction of という, so it can also be reporting something that was said, but it's more often than not just an affectation that doesn't mean anything in particular.
It's more likely opposite. ぞ expresses the speaker's strong intention/assertion, and can be used in monologue (saying to themselves). On the other hand, ぜ is usually used to talk to someone else, and rarely used in monologue.
You can think だってさあ as でも.
if you're using the volitional "let's go," you're more like to hear 行こうぜ
I think of things like だってさ as little phrases that people pepper into their speech habitually that don't necessarily change the meaning of their sentences, like how some people say in english "but you know..." or "...know what I'm saying" constantly.