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課せられる/ とする

eeky

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Hi,

1. この施設内でゴミの投げ捨てをすると、最高500ドル の罰金を課せられることがありま す。

"Littering in this facility is subject to a maximum fine of $500."

What form of what verb is 課せられる?


2. 1万メートルを走るには大いに耐久力を必要とする。

"You need great endurance to run ten thousand meters."

What does とする mean in this case, and who/what is the subject of する?
 

Toritoribe

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1)
Good question.

That's a passive form of 課す. The passive form of a kanji compound stem -suru verb is always ~される(e.g. 対比する --> 対比される, 処罰する --> 処罰される), but some kind of single kanji stem -suru verbs conjugate (literally) irregularly. For instance, 比される and 比せられる are both used as the passive form of 比する, similarly, 罰される and 罰せられる are both correct. (~せられる is from the classical passive form ~せらる. The classical passive suffix ~らる is replaced with the modern one ~られる here.) This phenomenon is called 揺れ in Japanese grammar. It's considered that these verbs are in the way of shifting their conjugation types, just like 愛する is a godan verb, not a -suru verb.

The fact you noticed the strangeness of 課せられる shows that you've completely grasped usual conjugations of Japanese verbs.🙂:

2)
この条例は市内在住者のみを対象とする
彼は語学を得意とする
判決はこの法律を根拠とする
この会は親睦を目的とする
耐久力を必要とする。

In these examples, ~を…とする is almost the same as ~が…だ in meaning.
The subject is "people in general".
 

eeky

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Hi Toritoribe, a slightly belated thanks for your reply.

("completely grasped" ... well, I'm not sure about that!)
 
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Just want to make sure if the same applies to 処せられる, and another verb i can't remember right now but see quite often.
 

Toritoribe

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Yes, 処せられる belongs to the same group.
 
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