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中 じゅう or ちゅう

healer

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世界中 せかいじゅう
一日中 いちにちじゅう

授業中 じゅぎょうちゅう
営業中 えいぎょうちゅう

It seems to me the same kanji
is pronounced as じゅう where it means "throughout", ちゅう where it means "during".
Someone told me it is 音変化 due to the last vowel before
中. However I haven't yet come across one that reads the other way. I would like to see an example if there is any.

I wonder if they could mean the other way if we simply pronounce it differently without changing the words?
 

Toritoribe

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Refer to the following thread.

As written there, じゅう means "throughout", whereas ちゅう is "somewhere in the middle of it" in spacial usage. However, it's a bit complicated and this rule doesn't always applied in temporal usage.
Note that both じゅう and ちゅう are not always used for a word. There are many cases where only one of them can be used. For instance, 授業の間中(じゅぎょうのあいだじゅう) is more common for "throughout the class" instead of じゅぎょうじゅう. Also, えいぎょうじゅう would be interpreted as "throughout the sales department", not "throughout shop hours".
 

healer

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Oh! I've opened a can of worm. It looks like I just have to memorize every saying.

I don't live in Japan and have never been there. However I often see Japanese shops here in Australia hanging a sign saying 営業中 while their business is operating. So I don't know how "throughout the sales department" fits in. The dictionary imiwa I often use says it means the store opens. In the same dictionary, 授業中 means while in class.
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Toritoribe

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I often see Japanese shops here in Australia hanging a sign saying 営業中 while their business is operating.
That's 営業中(えいぎょうゅう). 営業中(えいぎょうゅう) can't have that meaning of 営業.
営業 is often used as the shortened form of 営業部 "sales department (of a company)" or a member of the sales department in business scenes. so "sales department (of a company)" is the most possible interpretation of 営業 in the reading えいぎょうじゅう, where じゅう means "throughout".
 

healer

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Thanks a lot!

営業中(えいぎょうゅう). 営業中(えいぎょうゅう)
Are you saying the same kanji 中 of 営業中 has two different pronunciations and hence two different meanings, whichever it is again depends on the context?

When I reviewed a textbook today I found two significant statements.
じゅう is a result of sequential voicing. I guess it refers to 音変化.​
中 attached to a noun that indicates an activity is always pronounced as ちゅう and means “in the middle of ~”.​

Is there anywhere on the net I can find the rules about 音変? I haven’t found them yet. I always try to ascertain the pattern to help me memorise.
To my memory I had come across rules before when I learnt the language ages ago. And I believe there must be some rules otherwise how could one know how to say when they first meet new words or phrases.

Something also bothers me is I had supposed the 音変 always apply. Now as I just realised it is not the case because of the second statement above in that 中 is always pronounced as ちゅう where it means “in the middle of ~”. It sounds like it ignores what vowel or rather kana precedes it.

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Toritoribe

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Are you saying the same kanji 中 of 営業中 has two different pronunciations and hence two different meanings, whichever it is again depends on the context?
Exactly. 血液中(けつえきゅう) vs. 血液中(けつえきゅう) is also an example of it in the thread I linked above.

じゅう is a result of sequential voicing.
That phenomenon "sequential voicing" is called 連濁(れんだく).

 

healer

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I wonder if they could mean the other way if we simply pronounce it differently without changing the words?
Exactly. 血液中(けつえきゅう) vs. 血液中(けつえきゅう)
Thanks! That's what I had expected all along. I asked the same question at another forum and someone who claimed to be a native Japanese rejected my concept. Certainly not everyone can be a teacher of his or her native language. I like this forum where there is a person so helpful and knowledgeable in both Japanese language and English language. Thanks a lot again!

Thanks for pointing me to the right direction for the info. Apparently I had googled the wrong word. That was a long time ago when I learnt and dropped the Japanese language due to other commitments. Now I recall it could've been 音便 not 音変 I encountered. The article you recommend does help me a lot.

Have a good day!
 

healer

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I came across a sentence similar to the following. I don't remember exactly so I have made it up for the question.
今週中に小包を届ける。

From the above discussions I have concluded that we say じゅう for the meaning of "throughout" while ちゅう for "some point of time"
I would like to know why 今週中 which means "before the week is out" is pronounced as じゅう not ちゅう which I had expected.
 

Toritoribe

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Both readings じゅう and ちゅう are possible for 今週中, but the meaning of 今週中に are the same whether it's read じゅう or ちゅう because of に.

Note that "a period of time + に" indicates a point of time, so whether 今週中 means "throughout this week" with the reading じゅう or
"before the week is out/by the end of the week" with the reading ちゅう, 今週中に refers to "a point of the period of time (=this week)" as a result.

Also note that there are many exceptions about the readings and meanings of "temporal words + 中". There are words only used with either じゅう or ちゅう, so it's hard to summarize, as I wrote in another thread.
e.g.
今日中
〇きょうじゅう ×きょうちゅう

今夜中
〇こんやじゅう 〇こんやちゅう

午前中
×ごぜんじゅう 〇ごぜんちゅう
 

healer

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I gather you're saying there is no hard and fast rule as either pronunciation is acceptable as good Japanese with 今週中 and 今夜中, though the dictionary I use only gives one each.
So I have to take them as exceptions or idioms.
Thanks again!
 
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