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上着を着て行かなかったので、風邪をひいたんだと思います。

healer

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The above sentence from a textbook has the verb 行くnegated while the speaker did go out and means to say going out without wearing a coat or jacket.

Is the following sentence I made up possible and grammatically correct and conveying better meaning of the speaker?

上着を着ないで行ったので、風邪をひたんだと思います。
 

Toritoribe

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The meanings are the same between those two sentences. It can't be said that your one is "conveying better meaning of the speaker". It negates the whole "着て行く", not just 行く, as the same sense as 鍵を持たないで、家を出てしまいました in another thread.
 
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