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も / でない / かわいそうな事に / のの

eeky

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Hello,

1. 「やっぱり人間はばかだった」と思う場合と「やっぱり 人間は賢かった」と思う場合はそれぞれどんな結果にな った時ですか。本文の単語も使って説明してください。

My translation: "What kind of outcomes will, respectively, cause (people in the future) to think 'Those people were complete ******' or 'Those people were pretty smart'? Please explain using the words of the text."

In the second sentence, what does も mean?


2. ジョージは勉強に真剣でない。

Translation given: "George is not serious about his study."

I hope this isn't a stupid question, but what is the grammar of でない? I seem to be having a mental blank. It's not from 出るis it?


3. かわいそうな事にその老いた女性はまたもバッグを盗ま れた。

Translation given: "The poor old woman had her bag stolen again."

I'm not exactly sure how かわいそうな事に fits into this sentence. Does it literally mean something like "In a pitiable incident, the old woman etc. ..."


4. スチームショベルは片方に三階建て、もう片方に四階建てのの 地下を掘りました。

Translation given: "The steam shovels dug down three stories on one side and four stories on the other side."

Is のの right? If so, how does it work?
 

Toritoribe

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1)
too/also
similar nuance to here.

2)
the negative of である/だ

3)
It's a kind of emphatic construction, something like "It's pitiable, but..."

4)
just a typo 😅
 

eeky

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Hi Toritoribe, thanks for your help.

In #1, I considered and rejected the "too/also" meaning because it didn't seem to fit the sentence. "too/also" in addition to what? Does it possibly mean that you can use some of your own words, and also some of the words from the text?

In #2, wouldn't that be でない? What's the difference between でな い and でない, and is there any reason why the latter would look unfamiliar to me? I'm sure I should know all this, but, as I say, I seem to be having an inexplicable mental blank. Oh dear.
 

Toritoribe

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1)
It implies 自分の言葉以外に本文の単語使って.

Please explain using the words of the text besides/in addition to your own words.

2)
The meaning is the same. ではない is more commonly used in conversation nowadays.

「でない」の検索結果 - Yahoo!辞書
 

eeky

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Thanks. I'm not sure if any of the textbooks or conjugation tables I've worked through have mentioned this でない. Maybe they did and I just forgot!

If you look at the copula conjugations at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanes...E3.81.A0_da.29 , all of the negative senses contain は. Are all these also possible without は, or is it just でない? Do you think it would be right to edit that table to put は in brackets, like "(は)", to show it's optional?
 

Toritoribe

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I've never seen では as the 未然形 of だ. In 国文法 and 学校文法, the 未然形 of だ is だろ, and では is parsed as "で + the particle は".
「だ」の検索結果 - Yahoo!辞書
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%8A%...8F.A3.E8.AA.9E

ではない can't be used in some set phrases. Also, でない is commonly used in adjectival/adnominal clauses.
e.g.
勉強には真剣でなければならない(×ではなければなら ない)
勉強に真剣でない者は学校に来るな!
 
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