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~ていく, ~てくる

tanhql

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i'm still a bit confused over the 'placement' of ~ていく and ~てくる on a time line. can anyone tell me (according to the attached picture) where should i put both of them, and their past tense, on a time line?

for example
野生動物の数が減っていく。
野生動物の数が減っていった。
野生動物の数が減ってくる。
野生動物の数が減ってきた。
assume the arrow is the time line of animals decreasing, where would each sentence best fit in the time line? (A and F are before and after the progression respectively)

on a totally unrelated topic, ゆっくり means slow, right? which means it's an adjective, right? so which group of adjective does it belong to? because the sentence もっとゆっくり話してください in a past jlpt 4 paper doesn't have a に or く for the adjective, so it's definitely not a い or な adjective.
 

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The7thSamurai

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I can't answer your first question, but ゆっくり is an adverb. I.e. it modifies a verb. So it's more like 'slowly' than 'slow'.

FYI, 'slow' is 遅い (おそい) and the adverb of おそい is おそく. おそい can also mean late, so you say 遅くなってごめんなさい (おそくなってごめんなさい), which is literally "I became late and I'm sorry".
 

tanhql

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I can't answer your first question, but ゆっくり is an adverb. I.e. it modifies a verb. So it's more like 'slowly' than 'slow'.
so there're adverbs in japanese that don't have an adjective counterpart? ie, the adverb doesn't 'stem' from the adjective?
 

PaulTB

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so there're adverbs in japanese that don't have an adjective counterpart?
Heck yes, loads.
Main categories that come to mind are ...
擬態語 and 擬音語 (onomatopoeaia) most of these are so-called to-adverbs (that is they can be used with と as an adverb*).
きらきら (adv-to,adv,vs) glitter; sparkle; glisten; twinkle; (P)
晴れた夜空に星はきらきらと輝いていた。
The stars were brilliant in the clear night sky.
Time-like nouns that act like adverbs
昨日 【きのう(P); さくじつ(P)】 (n-adv,n-t) yesterday; (P)
昨日彼女から手紙をもらった。
I had a letter from her yesterday.
Then everything else
全然 【ぜんぜん】 (adv) (1) wholly; entirely; completely; (2) not at all (with neg. verb); (P)
私はその物語には全然興味がない。
I am not in the least interested in the story.

* Oops, well I guess you knew what I meant.
 
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Elizabeth

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i'm still a bit confused over the 'placement' of ~ていく and ~てくる on a time line. can anyone tell me (according to the attached picture) where should i put both of them, and their past tense, on a time line?
for example
野生動物の数が減っていく。(Predicted to happen starting in the future)
野生動物の数が減っていった。(Already happened in the past)
野生動物の数が減ってくる。(Will gradually develop in the near future -- "is coming" or "on the way")
野生動物の数が減ってきた。(Is happening now).
 
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PaulTB

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then isn't it the same is 野生動物の数が減っている?

野生動物の数が減ってきた。Has (or had) started happening. Often that means is still happening but not necessarily so.

うるさい少年グループたちは手に負えなくなってきた。
The group of noisy boys was getting out of hand.
 

Elizabeth

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then isn't it the same is 野生動物の数が減っている?
Kita is like saying something has come into being -- that it isn't constant, either in a past or (most likely) future time.
 

tanhql

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分かりました。どうもありがとうございました。
 

Elizabeth

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分かりました。どうもありがとうございました。
どういたしまして。 I was at work earlier and didn't have time to explain very thoroughly.
It's very, very messy to actually try and analyze in English and account for all the idiomatic usages :( but in describing an event or something taking place over time, きた I believe could indicate either it has only just begun, only just been noticed or started a while back and is still under the effect or that state or condition ("until now" 今まで、そう習ってきました。。。)。Or some combination of all of these depending on the speaker's connotation...

いく is rarer and you may be most likely to encounter it in sentences such as これから、だんだん暖かくなっていくでしょう to indicate a warming trend that is likely to 'originate' in the near future and continue developing or radiating "outwards" from that starting point. Depending on the verb and context, いく is also sometimes used in reference to more abstract phenomenon (certain action or transformation in state that is perpetual and ongoing will continue to change in a regular pattern).

This thread may give a better sense of the feeling normally implied by 変わってくる or 違ってくる type phrases. 😅  
Kawattekuru | Japan Forum
 
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