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その分析は... / 文化という媒体は ... / 日本は、外国文化を吸収し... / でも、日本人が日本で生み...

eeky

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Hi,

Some more (for me) hard sentences that I could use some help with!

1. その分析は、10年以上前に政治学者のジョセフ・ナイが「ソフトパワー」という言葉を使って説いた理論の延長線上にある。

For the first part I get "In respect of this analysis, the political theorist Joseph Nye used the term 'soft power' over ten years ago, ..."

Then I'm stuck on 説いた理論の延長線上にある. I think the function of にある is confusing me as much as anything.


2. 文化という媒体は、力を持てば、受け手の好みや考え方、価値観にまで深く影響を及ぼすことができる。

My part translation: "... when the media hold the power, they can profoundly influence the likes, the way of thinking, and even the values of viewers and listeners."

a) I'm not sure about 文化という媒体, especially the role of という. How does this phrase work?

b) Is the translation of 持てば as "when (the media) hold" OK?


3. 日本は、外国文化を吸収し、模倣し、変形させ、自分たちの文化の中に取り入れることを古くから得意としてきた。

My attempted translation: "Japan absorbs, imitates and moulds foreign cultures, and has long been adept at incorporating them within its own."

I don't really understand 得意としてきた. I'd like it to mean something like "has come to be its strength" but I don't understand what is the subject of きた. How does this phrase work?


4. でも、日本人が日本で生み、育ててきたものの中には、外国人が憧れ、真似したくてもできないと感じているものが数多くある。その魅力に一番無頓着なのは日本人自身ではないだろうか。

I'm guessing that the first sentence is basically saying that there are many Japanese things that foreigners admire but don't necessarily want to imitate. Assuming this is roughly correct:

a) I'm assuming that 日本人が日本で生み、育ててきたもの means "things that the Japanese people have produced and developed in Japan", but what sense is きた adding? I'm sorry to keep asking about ~てくる. I can never seem to work out how to translate it in any given situation. Usually I seem to end up ignoring it, which makes me think I'm missing some meaning in the Japanese.

b) What meaning does できない have here? I've translated 真似したくてもできない as "yet don't want to imitate", but I'm just guessing. I can't fit any known sense of できない to this interpretation.

c) I've translated the second sentence as "Perhaps the people most indifferent to these attractions (i.e. to the things produced and developed in Japan) are the Japanese people themselves?" Is this correct?
 

Toritoribe

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1. その分析は、10年以上前に政治学者のジョセフ・ナイが「ソフトパワー」という言葉を使って説いた理論の延長線上にある。
For the first part I get "In respect of this analysis, the political theorist Joseph Nye used the term 'soft power' over ten years ago, ..."
Then I'm stuck on 説いた理論の延長線上にある. I think the function of にある is confusing me as much as anything.
The core of the sentence is 分析は、延長線上にある, i.e., ある is the main verb. Besides, 使って is used adverbially here.

That analysis is an extension of the theory that the political theorist Joseph Nye explained over ten years ago, using the term 'soft power'.

2. 文化という媒体は、力を持てば、受け手の好みや考え方、価値観にまで深く影響を及ぼすことができる。
My part translation: "... when the media hold the power, they can profoundly influence the likes, the way of thinking, and even the values of viewers and listeners."
a) I'm not sure about 文化という媒体, especially the role of という. How does this phrase work?
the media "culture"; culture as a media

b) Is the translation of 持てば as "when (the media) hold" OK?
Yes.

3. 日本は、外国文化を吸収し、模倣し、変形させ、自分たちの文化の中に取り入れることを古くから得意としてきた。
My attempted translation: "Japan absorbs, imitates and moulds foreign cultures, and has long been adept at incorporating them within its own."
I don't really understand 得意としてきた. I'd like it to mean something like "has come to be its strength" but I don't understand what is the subject of きた. How does this phrase work?
(エ) 動作が継続・反復されて現在に至るまで続く意を表す。

生まれてからずうっとこの村で暮らしてきた

いつも、ひとに迷惑をかけるな、といってきたはずだ
http://dic.yahoo.co.jp/dsearch?enc=UTF-8&p=くる&dtype=0&dname=0ss&stype=0&index=105627000000&pagenum=1

Thus, "has been adept at~" is a good traslation. But " 吸収し、模倣し、変形させ、自分たちの文化の中に取り入れること" are all the objects of 得意としてきた in that sentence.

4. でも、日本人が日本で生み、育ててきたものの中には、外国人が憧れ、真似したくてもできないと感じているものが数多くある。その魅力に一番無頓着なのは日本人自身ではないだろうか。
I'm guessing that the first sentence is basically saying that there are many Japanese things that foreigners admire but don't necessarily want to imitate. Assuming this is roughly correct:
a) I'm assuming that 日本人が日本で生み、育ててきたもの means "things that the Japanese people have produced and developed in Japan", but what sense is きた adding? I'm sorry to keep asking about ~てくる. I can never seem to work out how to translate it in any given situation. Usually I seem to end up ignoring it, which makes me think I'm missing some meaning in the Japanese.
Same as #3

b) What meaning does できない have here? I've translated 真似したくてもできない as "yet don't want to imitate", but I'm just guessing. I can't fit any known sense of できない to this interpretation.
真似したくても真似できない: want to imitate but can't
Does this make sense?

c) I've translated the second sentence as "Perhaps the people most indifferent to these attractions (i.e. to the things produced and developed in Japan) are the Japanese people themselves?" Is this correct?
Yes.
 

eeky

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動作が継続・反復されて現在に至るまで続く意を表す。。
Hi Toritoribe. As always, thanks for your help. Is the above saying "expresses action that is continued and repeated, lasting up until the present time"?

But " 吸収し、模倣し、変形させ、自分たちの文化の中に取り 入れること" are all the objects of 得意としてきた in that sentence.
OK, so now I understand the structure of the sentence to be:

日本は、(外国文化 を A, B、C、D こと) を 古くから 得意としてきた。

Does 得意として have the sense something like "make into 得意"? What does it literally mean here?

What is the subject of きた (or してきた if you prefer)? Indeed, is there a specific subject?

Does this make sense?
Yes. Now that you've explained it, I can't understand why I didn't see it myself!
 

Toritoribe

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Is the above saying "expresses action that is continued and repeated, lasting up until the present time"?
It's more likely "~てくる expresses that an action is continued or repeated, and it's lasting until the present time."

Does 得意として have the sense something like "make into 得意"? What does it literally mean here?
得意とする/得意としている expresses a state "being adept/good at~" rather than an action. Thus, 得意としてきた means that Japan has been continuing to be good at those things.

What is the subject of きた (or してきた if you prefer)? Indeed, is there a specific subject?
That's Japan or Japanese people, as you translated correctly.
 

eeky

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Thanks Toritoribe. とする and ~てくる are expressions that seem to perpetually confuse me.
 
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