Welcome to Japan Reference (JREF) - the community for all Things Japanese.

Join Today! It is fast, simple, and FREE!


  1. The Number System of Ancient Japanese

    TYJ The Number System of Ancient Japanese

    The number system of ancient Japanese is not used now except 1 through 10, which are sometimes used as alternate vocabulary. The modern Japanese language uses a different number system imported from Chinese. The "Modern" column below means the modern pronunciation of ancient Japanese numbers...
  2. Jaccent - japanese accent pronunciation dictionary

    Jaccent - japanese accent pronunciation dictionary

    Hi everyone, I want to introduce an iOS app which is very useful for learning Japanese, especially Japanese's accent and pronunciation. The app' data is referenced from famous Japanese's websites so that it is completely reliable. Below are the app description and download link, please take a...
  3. N

    Help Words for this/that and how do I use them in a sentence?

    this is a pretty self explanatory question
  4. jawfuj

    Create Thread: Guy人48(Guyjin48)

    Guy人48とは? Guy人48は、日本初の全メンバーが外国人留学生男子の多国籍アイドルバンドです。人と人を繋いで国 際交流を促し、日本語を上達させ、日本で就職できる環境を作ることが主な目的です。コンサートなどの イベントを通して、他の留学生と日本語を母語とした人々が交流できる場所を提供し、ウェブサイトを通し て自分のお気に入りのメンバーの日本語の進歩を確認したり、日本語と日本の文化をGuy人48と共に学 習することができます。 誰が応募できる? 1...
  5. Alucina

    Advice on memorizing "onyomi" readings in kanji?

    Having gone through jlpt n5 kanji and being halfway through jlpt n4 kanji, I don't find myself having too much trouble with the kunyomi. But the onyomi readings are very confusing, especially since they're mostly all similar, so I find it hard to tell between all of them. I'm aware there isn't a...
  6. Essential Japanese Grammar: A Comprehensive Guide to Contemporary Usage

    日本語 Essential Japanese Grammar: A Comprehensive Guide to Contemporary Usage

    "Essential Japanese Grammar" is a complete revision of the Handbook of Japanese Grammar (Tuttle Publishing 1994). The book consists of two parts (Part 1 is "Japanese Grammar: An Overview and 2nd part Dictionary of usage"); while the first part has 21 chapters, the second part contains two. The...
  7. Japanese Verb Conjugations

    Language Japanese Verb Conjugations

    Below find an overview over all the Japanese verb conjugations, including all irregular verbs. For more specific information on how each conjugation is used refer to the appropriate links. In modern Japanese, two types of words are conjugated Verbs Verbal Adjectives Verbs have five...
  8. Body parts in Japanese

    Language Body parts in Japanese

    Below find a concise list of the most common Japanese terms for body parts. Body and face head頭atamaneck首kubi shoulder肩kataarm腕ude hand手teelbow肘hiji chest胸muneback背中senaka hips, waist腰koshinavel, bellybutton臍heso stomach腹, お腹hara, onakafoot, leg足ashi knee膝hizaankle足首ashikubi toe足の指ashi no...
  9. Comparative Forms

    Language Comparative Forms

    This is an overview of comparative forms in the Japanese language. When comparing two objects or factors the Japanese often use the particle より (yori), meaning “from”, to describe that viewed from object “A”, object “B” is heavier, smaller, more interesting, etc. The structure is then as...
  10. Making Requests in Japanese

    Language Making Requests in Japanese

    This is a brief overview of how to make requests in the Japanese language. Inviting someone to do something By using a negative question, you can invite someone to do something. For detailed instructions on how to construct negative forms and question, please refer to the negative forms and...
  11. Dubitative Forms

    Language Dubitative Forms

    Dubitative forms are used to express doubt or an assumption. The dubitative is very closely related to the subjunctive in Japanese. Rentaikei + かな (ka na) or かなあ (ka naa) This is a simple dubitative. It illustrates a certain amount of doubt you have concerning the statement you just made. かなあ...
  12. Negation in Japanese

    Language Negation in Japanese

    Negation, or the basic negative form, in the Japanese language is created by placing the verbal adjective ない (nai) after the mizenkei conjugation of the verb. In the colloquial language ない (nai) after a verb is often abbreviated to ん ( n ). 雨が降らない。 (Ame ga furanai. It isn’t raining. バスが高くないです。...
  13. Direct and Indirect Speech

    Language Direct and Indirect Speech

    This is a brief overview of the use of direct and indirect speech in the Japanese language. To convey information given by other people, direct or quoted speech, or indirect or reported speech, is used. In Japanese language quoting and citing, or direct and indirect speech are constructed with...
  14. Japanese Clauses

    Language Japanese Clauses

    Clauses are combinations of two or more sentences. They can describe contradictions, cause and effect, similarity, conditionality, and simultaneous and consecutive actions. Find an overview of the most common Japanese clauses below. Using the rentaikei This is the most common and versatile...
  15. Passive Forms

    Language Passive Forms

    Passive forms are also known as “passive voice” in English. It is translated as “being done”. This form cannot be combined with verbal adjectives. The passive form can be created by adding either れる (reru) or られる (rareru) to the mizenkei conjugation of respectively Group 4 (yodan katsuyou) and...
  16. Gender Differences in Spoken Japanese

    Language Gender Differences in Spoken Japanese

    What we present here is a short overview of gendered language in colloquial Japanese. In spoken Japanese, a distinction is made between male and female language. Most of these differences pertain to the use of certain words, though primarily the informal speech has a slightly different grammar...
  17. Interrogative Forms

    Language Interrogative Forms

    Interrogative forms in Japanese are relatively simple. To create fundamental questions the question particle か (ka) is added after the closing verb. The word order in Japanese does not change, though the inflexion does. 明日、来ます。 → 明日、来ますか。 Ashita kimasu. → Ashita kimasu ka. I'm coming tomorrow...
  18. Prohibitive Forms

    Language Prohibitive Forms

    This is a brief overview of prohibitive forms in the Japanese language. The prohibitive form is used to forbid someone to do something or to urge someone to refrain from doing something strongly. Do not! The rentaikei + な (na) construction is used to create strong prohibitives. 飲むな。 Nomu na...
  19. Causative Forms

    Language Causative Forms

    The causative form is used to describe that someone has let, had, or made someone else do something. The causative form is constructed by adding (さ)せる [(sa)seru] to the mizenkei. The mizenkei + せる (seru) is used with Group 4 (or yodan katsuyou) verbs, and the mizenkei + させる (saseru) is used...
  20. Potential Forms

    Language Potential Forms

    Potential forms are used to describe that you are capable of doing something or that something is possible. The short potential form The ren’youkei + える (eru) is the short potential form and can only be used with Group 4 (yodan katsuyou) verbs. This combination has a contraction where the...
Top Bottom