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History Tozama daimyō (外様)

Tozama daimyō (外様) – a daimyō who had become a vassal of Tokugawa Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara. There were tozama who had fought both for and against Ieyasu.



Tozama daimyō (外様大名, "outside daimyō") was a class of powerful magnates or daimyō (大名) considered to be outsiders by the ruler of Japan. Tozama daimyō were classified in the Tokugawa Shogunate (江戸幕府) as daimyō who became hereditary vassals of the Tokugawa after the Battle of Sekigahara (関ヶ原の戦い). Tozama daimyō were discriminated against by the Tokugawa and opposed to the fudai daimyō during the Edo period (江戸時代). Initially, the concept of tozama daimyō emerged in Japan along with the daimyō after the rise of the Kamakura Shogunate (鎌倉幕府) in the 12th century. Tozama applied to a daimyō who was considered an "outsider" by successive Shōguns, Emperors, and shikken (執権) that ruled over Japan at any given time. Typically, a tozama had a loose or indirect relationship with the current ruler, and this definition remained intact during the subsequent Ashikaga Shogunate (足利幕府, 1336–1573, also known as the Muromachi (室町幕府)), and the Sengoku period (戦国時代, 1467-1615, "Age of Warring States").


Daimyō 大名

History  Daimyō 大名

A title given to the largest of the landholding military lords ruling over a sizeable number of vassals (家人 kennin) from the tenth until the mid-nineteenth century. In the term, dai (大) means large, and myō stands for myōden (名田, lit. “name land”), meaning privately held land. Lesser holders of...

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