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Items by JREF

G
JREF
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311
Gōzoku (豪族) – local samurai clans with significant local land holdings. Gōzoku (豪族, lit. "powerful clan"), in Japanese, refers to powerful regional families. In historical context, it can refer to powerful non-royal families regardless of their area of influence, in contrast to the Imperial...
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History Gosho (御所)
JREF
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236
Gosho (御所) – The Emperor's throne or his residence. The residence of a member of the Imperial family, and a term to indicate those members. The residence of a prince or shōgun, and a term for prince or shōgun.
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JREF
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457
Gosankyō (御三卿) – Three branches of the Tokugawa clan from which a shōgun might be chosen if the main line became extinct and established by Tokugawa Yoshimune in the middle of the Edo period. The Gosankyō (御三卿, "the Three Lords") were three branches of the Tokugawa clan of Japan. They were...
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JREF
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466
Gosanke (御三家) – Three branches of the Tokugawa clan from which a shōgun might be chosen if the main line became extinct and established by Tokugawa Ieyasu in the early Edo period. They were the daimyōs of the Owari (or Bishū), Kii (or Kishū), and Mito Han. The Tokugawa Gosanke (徳川御三家, "the...
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JREF
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286
Gokenin (or kenin 家人) – a vassal of the shōgun during the Kamakura, Ashikaga and Tokugawa shogunates. A gokenin (御家人) was initially a vassal of the shogunate of the Kamakura and the Muromachi periods. In exchange for protection and the right to become jitō (manor's lord), a gokenin had in...
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History Genrō (元老)
JREF
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263
Genrō (元老) – an unofficial term for retired Japanese statesmen considered "founding fathers" of modern Japan who served as informal advisors to the emperor during the Meiji and Taishō periods. The institution of genrō originated with the traditional council of elders (Rōjū) common in the Edo...
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JREF
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161
Genpei War (源平合戦 Genpei Kassen) (1180–1185) – a conflict between the Taira and Minamoto clans and in late-Heian period Japan that resulted in the defeat of the Taira. The Genpei War (源平合戦, Genpei Kassen, Genpei-Gassen, 1180–1185) was a national civil war between the Taira and Minamoto clans...
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JREF
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692
Genkō War (元弘の乱, Genkō no Ran) – a civil war which marked the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the end of the power of the Hōjō clan The Genkō War (元弘の乱, Genkō no Ran), also known as the Genkō Incident (元弘の變, Genkō no Hen), was a civil war fought in Japan between the Emperor Go-Daigo and the...
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JREF
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209
Gaikoku bugyō (外国奉行) – commissioners appointed to oversee foreign trade and relations between 1858 and 1868. Gaikoku bugyō (外国奉行) were the commissioners or "magistrates of foreign affairs" appointed at the end of the Edo era by the Tokugawa shogunate to oversee trade and diplomatic relations...
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JREF
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176
Fudai daimyō (譜代) – a daimyō who was a hereditary vassal of the Tokugawa before the Battle of Sekigahara (1600). See also tozama daimyō.
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History Edo (江戸)
JREF
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200
Edo (江戸) – the old name of Tokyo when it was the seat of the Tokugawa shogunate. Alternate, outdated spellings include Yedo and Yeddo. Edo (Japanese: 江戸, lit. '"bay-entrance" or "estuary"'), also romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo. Edo, formerly a jōkamachi (castle...
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JREF
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435
Daimyō (大名) – a feudal lord during the later Muromachi period, Sengoku period, Azuchi–Momoyama period and Edo period.
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JREF
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228
Chōnin (町人, "townsman") was a social class that emerged in Japan during the early years of the Tokugawa period. In the social hierarchy, it was considered subordinate to the samurai warrior class.
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JREF
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569
Bushidō (武士道, "the way of the warrior") is a moral code concerning samurai attitudes, behaviour and lifestyle. There are multiple bushido types which evolved significantly through history. Contemporary forms of bushido are still used in the social and economic organization of Japan. Bushido is...
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History Bugyō
JREF
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650
Bugyō (奉行) was a title assigned to samurai officials during the feudal period of Japan. Bugyō is often translated as commissioner, magistrate, or governor, and other terms would be added to the title to describe a given official's tasks or jurisdiction more specifically. In the Heian period...
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History Bettō
JREF
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588
Bettō (別當) – the head of a civilian, military or religious institution. A term which originally indicated the head of an institution serving temporarily as the head of another one, but which came to mean also the full-time head of some institution The Kamakura period samurai Wada Yoshimori, for...
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History Ashigaru
JREF
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518
Ashigaru (足輕) were feudal foot soldiers drawn from the peasant or commoner class rather than the samurai hereditary warrior class.
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History Bushi
JREF
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630
Bushi (武士) were members of the Japanese warrior class (samurai).
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