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~んだ

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Hello,

I've been meaning to ask about ~んだ for some time now. I learned it as "something that has an explanatory role", but even though it may be true, it seems too general of a definition and sometimes it doesn't make sense. I've been collecting some sentences with ~んだ, can you tell me if I understand their meaning correctly?

1) From that card game: 船長は皆に宝を残してくれた。さあ、遠慮なく使うがいい!毎ターン、3枚のカードの入った宝箱が開かれる。好きな1枚を君の手札に加えるのだ
Is のだ used for explaining the rules of the game (how to play)? I noticed that のだ is often used when you explain to someone how something is/should be done.

2) 先生:このことば(~の方が)を使ってくらべて言うんだ
エリン:2つをくらべるんですね。(動画の再生|大切な表現|第18課 It is about 1/4 from the beginning, before it starts to present examples)
The first んだ seems to be for explaining how to do something (just like 1)). And is the second んだ used for indicating understanding here?

3) 「漠然」は、なんとなくそれらしいのだが、はっきりしないさまをいう。考え、気持ち、話の内容などについて用いることが多い。(ばくぜん【漠然】の類語・シソーラス - 類語辞書 - goo辞書)
a) First, does the whole "なんとなくそれらしいのだが、はっきりしない" modify さま?
b) I assume it is the explanatory の here, but I don't really know what the difference is between のだが and just が here.
 

Toritoribe

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1)
It's imperative.
のだ
2 話し手の決意、または相手に対する要求・詰問の意を表す。「なんとしてもその夢を実現させる―◦だ」
のだの意味 - goo国語辞書

2)
Yes for the first sentence (except "like #1").
The "understanding" nuance is from "の + ね for confirmation", not just from の.

3) a)
Yes.

b)
The meaning is almost the same even if のだ isn't there.
 
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1) "imperative" also crossed my mind, but I thought "explanatory" was more likely.
Is it imperative because of the exclamation mark and the tone of the first sentence?
For example, would it be "explanatory" if the whole phrase was just "毎ターン、3枚のカードの入った宝箱が開かれる。好きな1枚を君の手札に加えるのだ。" ?

Another sentence, completely unrelated to the first: 守護者の宝箱を獲得したぞ!クリックして開けるんだ。. At the end of a season, you get a chest. My guess is that this んだ is explanatory, because of the lack of an exclamation mark.

2) I see, thank you!

3) Thank you. I wonder if the meaning would remain the same in the next 2 cases as well. (from よつばと)
a) あさぎ:クーラーって知ってるかなー? この機械なんだけど
Yotsuba was surprised that Asagi's house was so cool in the summer, so Asagi shows her the AC. She is explaining something so my guess is that のだ is a must here.

b) 父さん:そりゃ助かる。よつば お姉ちゃんテレビくれるって! 
風香:じゃあ取りに行きます?すぐ渡せますけど
Fuuka told Yotsuba and her father that they can have their old TV. Is んだけど possible instead of just けど? Would it change the meaning?
 

Toritoribe

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1)
Both are also imperative since those are instructions.

3) a)
のことだけど also works fine instead of なんだけど. It can be considered as an inversion of クーラーって(いうのは)この機械のことだけど、知ってるかなー? この機械のことなんだけど would be the best, though.

b)
すぐに渡せるんですけど could have a nuance that there is something problem with the TV; not in a very good condition, heavy or like that. Also, んですけど sounds more "pushy" to me.
 
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1) Ah, so it is an imperative like 加えて; 開けて. I see now. I was thinking of imperative as 加えろ;開けろ and that's why I was confused.

3) I get what you mean by "pushy", but about the "TV being broken" nuance...

In my original sentence (じゃあ取りに行きます?すぐ渡せますけど) , けど was this one, right?
二つの事柄を単に結びつける意を表す。「野球番組も好きだ―、音楽番組も好きだ」「時間もない―、金もない」
But in すぐに渡せるんですけど , is it this one?
言い切りを避け、婉曲に表現する気持ちを表す。
 

Toritoribe

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1)
The rough tone of the sentences would be closer to 加えろ/開けろ.

3)
I don't think there is a difference between those two けど.
 
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Oh, ok. Thank you! I think i got it more or less. I have 2 more sentences.

4) (Girl saying this to her boyfriend):この間 私の目が好きって言ってくれたでしょ?嬉しかったんだ。あなたが私のことを、私の一部でも気に入ってくれてるんだって

a) Firstly, in 嬉しかったんだ....Is this the explanatory の, explaining that she was happy? My impression is that the sentence is emphasized a little, kind of like a weak "I want you to know".

b) In んだって,  んだ is part of the quoted speech, right?

5) 仕方がないのでおじいさんは灰を集めて 家に持って帰り 庭に撒きました。すると一面に花が咲いたのです。 (はなさかじいさん on page 6, the one with the pink trees in the background)
I think this is probably the explanatory のだ, but it seems weird that this is the only place it is used in the whole story. If it is explanatory, I think it could fit more places than just there. Is there any special reason why it is used only there?
 

Toritoribe

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4)
Yes.

5)
for emphasizing. 庭に撒いたのです。 shows that this is a main event, for instance.
 
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