The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (放射線医学総合研究所) (NIRS) is a radiation research institute in Japan. The NIRS was established in 1957 as Japan's only one institute of radiology. The NIRS maintains various ion accelerators in order to study the effects of radiation of the human body and medical uses of radiation. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences hospital established in 1961 is a research hospital with a basic focus on radiation therapy. In 1993 the HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) of NIRS was launched, and in 1997 the Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy was opened as one of the leading medical centres using carbon ions are in operation. On 1 April 1 2016, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) transferred some of its laboratories to the NIRS, and the NIRS body was renamed to the National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST) which includes existing laboratories of the NIRS; the NIRS is currently a radiological research division of the QST.