Mon of the Matsudaira Clan
The Matsudaira (松平氏 Matsudaira-shi) were a samurai family (武家 buke) from the Matsudaira area in Mikawa Province (modern-day Aichi Prefecture). Although its exact origins are unclear, the clan claimed descent from the medieval Seiwa Genji (清和源氏) branch of the Minamoto. Its founder was said to be Matsudaira Chikauji (松平親氏, d. 1393), who lived in the early Muromachi period and established himself in Mikawa Province, at the village of Matsudaira (in modern-day Toyota). Originally a poor Buddhist monk, Chikauji reportedly descended from Nitta Yoshisue in the 8th generation and witnessed the ruin of the Nitta clan in their war against the Ashikaga. He settled at Matsudaira and was adopted by his wife's family.

The Matsudaira were surrounded by powerful neighbours: the Oda clan to the west (in Owari province) and the Imagawa to the east (in Suruga). Their main branch resided at Okazaki Castle and ascended to prominence in the second half of the 16th century thanks to their most famous prodigy, Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康, 1543-1616, born Matsudaira Takechiyo 松平竹千代). With imperial approval, Ieyasu later changed his surname to prove his (historically controversial) descent from the prestigious house of Minamoto (源). He founded the Tokugawa clan and became the first shōgun of the dynasty. However, most historians agree that Ieyasu embellished his Minamoto descent by linking his own lineage to that of the Nitta clan.

Before Ieyasu became shōgun , the Matsudaira clan consisted of nineteen collateral families:
  • Fujii (藤井)
  • Fukama (福釜)
  • Fukōzu (深溝)
  • Goi (五井)
  • Iwatsu (岩津)
  • Kaga (加賀)
  • Katahara (形原)
  • Mitsugi (三木)
  • Nagasawa (長沢)
  • Nishi-Fukama (西福釜)
  • Nōmi (能見)
  • Ōgusa (大草)
  • Ogyū (大給)
  • Sakurai (桜井)
  • Takenoya (竹谷)
  • Takiwaki (滝脇)
  • Tōjō (東条)
  • Udono (鵜殿)
  • Yata (矢田)
In the Edo period (1603-1868), when daimyō domains replaced the former provinces as administrative units, many branch families managed to obtain their fiefs assuming the positions of daimyō . The Edo Shogunate allowed several daimyō, such as the Maeda (前田氏), Date (伊達氏), Kuroda (黒田氏), Asano (浅野氏), Nashima (鍋島氏), Mōri (毛利氏), Ikeda (池田氏), Hachisuka (蜂須賀氏), Yamanouchi (山内氏) among others, to bear the family name Matsudaira, as can be seen in the designation of Edo residences on district maps.

The Matsudaira family is still extant. They meet, along with the other nobles, in the Kasumikaikan (霞会館) association based on the 34th floor of the Kasumigaseki Building in Tōkyō. A well-known member, Matsudaira Yorihiro (松平頼明, 1909-1990) was bestowed the Bronze Wolf Award from the World Organisation of the Scout Movement in 1981 for his outstanding service.

The Matsudaira daimyō:


Before the Mito Rebellion in 1864, there were forty Matsudaira daimyō.

Pre Edo-era branches

Cited below are the names of their branches, the last daimyō or head of family, and their domain.

Matsudaira Noritsune (松平乗秩, 1839-1873))Nishio (西尾藩)
Matsudaira Noritoshi (松平乗命, 1848-1905)Iwamura (岩村藩)
Matsudaira Norikata (松平乗謨, 1839-1910)Tanokuchi (田野口藩)
Matsudaira Chikayoshi (松平近説, 1829-1886)Funai (府内藩)
]Matsudaira Tadaoki (松平忠興, 1848-1895)Amagasaki (尼崎藩)
Matsudaira Nobutsune (松平信庸, 1666-1717)Kaminoyama (上山藩)
Matsudaira Tadanari (松平忠礼, 1850-1895)Ueda (上田藩)
Matsudaira Nobufumi (松平信書, 1846-1864)Ojima (小島藩)
Matsudaira Nobuyoshi (松平信義, 1822-1866)Tamba-Kameyama (丹波亀山藩)
Matsudaira Tadakazu (松平忠和, 1851-1917)Shimabara (島原藩)
Matsudaira Chikayoshi (松平親良, 1810-1891)Kitsuki (杵築藩)

Edo-era branches


Matsudaira Yoshitomo (松平慶倫, 1827-1871)Tsuyama (津山藩)
Matsudaira Mochiaki (松平茂昭, 1836-1890)Fukui (福井藩)
Matsudaira Naoyasu (松平直静, 1848-1913)Itoigawa (糸魚川藩)
Matsudaira Sadayasu (松平定安, 1835-1882)Matsue (松江藩)
Matsudaira Naooki (松平直巳, 1832-1917)Hirose (広瀬藩)
Matsudaira Naotoshi (松平直哉, 1848-1897)Mori (母里藩)
Matsudaira Naokatsu (松平直克, 1840-1897)Kawagoe (川越藩)
Matsudaira Yoshinori (松平慶憲, 1826-1897)Akashi (明石藩)
Matsudaira Takeakira (松平武聰, 1842-1882)Hamada (浜田藩)
Matsudaira Katamori (松平容保, 1836-1893)Aizu (会津藩)
Matsudaira Yoshitake (松平義勇, 1859-1891)Takasu (高須藩)
Matsudaira Yorihide (松平頼英, 1843-1905)Saijō (西条藩)
Matsudaira Yoritoshi (松平頼聰, 1834-1903)Takamatsu (高松藩)
Matsudaira Yorinori (松平頼升, 1832-1872)Moriyama (守山藩)
Matsudaira Yoritsugu (松平頼縄, 1805-1884)Hitachi-Fuchū (常陸府中藩)
Matsudaira Yorinori (松平頼徳, 1831-1864)Hitachi-Shishido (常陸宍戸藩)

Branches from other clans


Matsudaira Katsuyuki (松平勝行, 1832-1869)Tako (多胡藩)
Matsudaira Katsushige (松平勝成, 1832-1912)Iyo-Matsuyama (伊予松山藩)
Matsudaira Sadaaki (松平定敬, 1847-1908)Kuwana (桑名藩)
Matsudaira Sadanori (松平定法, 1835-1901)Imabari (今治藩)
Honjō (本庄)
Matsudaira Munehide (松平宗秀, 1809-1873)Miyazu (宮津藩)
Matsui (松井)
Matsudaira Yasuhiro (松平康泰, 1849-1864)Anagura (棚倉藩)
Matsudaira Tadazane (松平忠誠, 1840-1869)Oshi (忍藩)
Matsudaira Tadayuki (松平忠恕, 1742-1792)Obata (小幡藩)
Matsudaira Nobuhisa (松平信古, 1829-1888)Mikawa-Yoshida (三河吉田藩)
Matsudaira Teruaki (松平輝聲, 1848-1882)Takasaki (高崎藩)
Matsudaira Masatada (松平正質, 1844-1901)Ōtaki (大多喜藩)
Matsudaira Nobuoki (松平信発, 1824-1890)Yoshii (吉井藩)
Matsudaira Mitsuhisa (松平光則, 1828-1892)Matsumoto (松本藩)
Matsudaira N.N (松平)Utsunomiya (宇都宮藩)
Matsudaira N.N. (松平)Takatoku (高徳藩)
Matsudaira N.N. (松平)Ashikaga (足利藩)
Matsudaira Ujitaka (松平氏共, 1854-1936)Ōgaki (大垣藩)
Matsudaira N.N. (松平)Nomura (野村藩)

Tokugawa collateral lines


Tokugawa collateral lines

Source: Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Tokugawa Family, 1983

Matsudaira Tōshō-gū (松平郷館) in Toyota, Aichi Prefecture

Matsudaira Tōshō-gū (松平郷館) in Toyota, Aichi Prefecture

Kogetsuin (高月院), the Matsudaira bodaiji (菩提寺, family temple)

Kogetsuin (高月院), the Matsudaira bodaiji (菩提寺, family temple)


References:

  • Edmond Papinot: Historical and Geographical Dictionary of Japan. Reprint from 1910; Tuttle, 1972
  • Informative
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