This is a brief overview of the use of direct and indirect speech in the Japanese language. To convey information given by other people, direct or quoted speech, or indirect or reported speech, is used. In Japanese language quoting and citing, or direct and indirect speech are constructed with the "citing と (to)". The citing と (to) is placed after the full sentence which you want to cite, followed by a verb capable of citing like "to say", "to ask", or "to remember".

The citing と (to) can be combined with many verbs where it is best translated as "to says that", "to understand that", "to feel that", etc.

と言うというto iusay
と考えるとかんがえるto kangaeruthink
と感じるとかんじるto kanjirufeel
と聞くときくto kikuhear
と知るとしるto shiruknow
と呼ぶとよぶto yobucall / name
と分かるとわかるto wakaruunderstand

The distinction between direct and indirect speech can be made from the quotation marks.

Ashita iku to Tarou-kun ga itta.
Tarou said he was going tomorrow.

"Ashita iku." to Tarou-kun ga itta.
"I'm going tomorrow," said Tarou.

The verb before the citing to cannot be in the polite form, unless the quote is direct speech.

Ashita iku to Tarō-kun ga iimashita.
Tarō said he was going tomorrow.

"Ashita ikimasu." to Tarō-kun ga itta.
"I'm going tomorrow," said Tarō.

"Ashita ikimasu." to Tarō-kun ga iimashita.
"I'm going tomorrow," said Tarō.

In direct speech, the use of polite forms in the quote and outside the quote can be applied independently from one another.